Research in Dance and Physical Activity

Current Issue

Research in Dance and Physical Activity - Vol. 7 , No. 2

[ Article ]
Research in Dance and Physical Activity - Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 59-79
ISSN: 2951-4770 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Apr 2023
Received 28 Feb 2023 Revised 10 Apr 2023 Accepted 18 Apr 2023

Preliminary Study of the Physical Fitness Test for Screening of Cognitive Impairment in the Korean Elderly
Jhin-Yi Shin1 ; Sungmin Oh2, *
1SungKyunKwan University, Republic of Korea, Researcher
2SungKyunKwan University, Republic of Korea, Researcher

Correspondence to : *Email address:


This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of physical fitness measurement for cognitive dysfunction screening in elderly Koreans. The subjects of the study were 88 elderly people (16 males and 72 females) aged 60 years or older who visited the Gyeonggi-do public health center and hospital associated with the neurology department of a university hospital in Gyeonggi-do, agreed with the purpose of this study, and wished to participate. Physical fitness measurement variables were isometric muscle strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, agility and dynamic balance, and coordination, and cognitive function tests performed using K-RBANS(Korean-Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) and CDR(clinical dementia rating), which were dementia screening tools. As a data processing method, correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the correlation between physical fitness and cognitive function. By conducting Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, the diagnostic accuracy and optimal cut-off of each physical fitness test for cognitive impairment were defined as CDR 0.5. As a result of the study, the F8WT, TUG(Time Up & Go Test ), and T-wall tests showed a large area under the curve (AUC) that defined cognitive impairment (TUG=.768, 95%CI=.650~.885; F8WT=.735, 95%). CI=.612~.857, T-wall=.682, 95% CI=.545~.819). The optimal cut-off for predicting cognitive impairment was 6.0 seconds in TUG (sensitivity = 73.2%, specificity = 73.1%), 26.3 seconds in F8WT (sensitivity = 71.4%, specificity = 73.1%), and T-wall. 94.5 seconds (sensitivity = 62.5%, specificity = 65.4%). The F8WT, TUG, and T-wall test were confirmed as accurate and convenient measurement methods for screening cognitive dysfunction in elderly Koreans. In addition, the availability for screening cognitive dysfunction in the elderly population with various levels of education was confirmed.

Keywords: K-RBANS, CDR, cognitive disorder screening test, senior physical fitness test, dementia test

1. Moon, Y. J., Jee, H., Kim, K. J., Chung, J. W., & Jeon, B. H. (2012). Cut-off values of optimal fitness level to prevent metabolic syndrome among Korean men. Korean J Sport Sci, 23(23), 12-21.
2. Ministry of Health and Welfare (2017). Promoting national dementia research and development to reduce the burden of dementia and overcome it. Ministry of Health and Welfare Press Release.
3. Song, H, S., Park, S, J., Ko, B, G., Song, J, H., Lee, M, H., Jea, S, Y., & Park, S, H. (2018). Development of Criterion Referenced Health Fitness Standards for Chronic Disease Prevention in Korean Adults: The Korea Institute of Sport Science Fitness Standards Study (KISS FitS). Korean journal of physical education, 57(6), 235-247.
4. Oh, B, H. (2002). Dementia, -The Right Guide to Understanding and Treating Dementia. Seoul: Book Publishing Rainbow Company.
5. Choi, S. H., Na, D. L., Lee, B. H., Hahm, D. S., Jeong, J. H., Yoon, S. J., & Han, I. W. (2001). Estimating the validity of the Korean version of expanded clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Journal of the Korean Neurological Association, 19(6), 585-591.
6. Cassilhas, R. C., Viana, V. A., Grassmann, V., Santos, R. T., Santos, R. F., Tufik, S. E. R. G. I. O., & Mello, M. T. (2007). The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(8), 1401-1407.
7. Alfaro-Acha A, Al Snih S, Raji MA, Markides KS, Ottenbacher KJ. (2007). Does 8-foot walk time predict cognitive decline in older Mexicans Americans? J Am Geriatr Soc. 55(2), 245-51.
8. Best, J. R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental review, 30(4), 331-351.
9. Buchman, A.S., Wilson, R.S., Boyle, P.A., Bienias, J.L., & Bennett, D.A. (2007). Grip strength and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease. Neuroepidemiology, 29(1-2), 66-73.
10. Boyle, P.A., Buchman, A.S., Wilson, R.S., Leurgans, S.E., & Bennett, D.A. (2009). Association of muscle strength with the risk of Alzheimer disease and the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older persons. Archives of neurology, 66(11), 1339-44.
11. Choi, S.H., Shim, Y.S., Ryu, S.H., Lee, D.W., Lee J.Y. (2011). Validation of the literacy independent cognitive assessment. Int psychogeriatr, 23, 593-601.
12. Demnitz, N., Esser, P., Dawes, H., Valkanova, V., Johansen Berg, H., Ebmeier, K.P., & Sexton, C. (2016). A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies examining the relationship between mobility and cognition in healthy older adults. Gait Posture, 50, 164-174.
13. Erickson, K. I., Voss, M. W., Prakash, R. S., Basak, C., Szabo, A., Chaddock, L., & Wojcicki, T. R. (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3017-3022.
14. Fitzpatrick, A.L., Buchanan, C.K., Nahin, R.L., Dekosky, S.T., Atkinson, H.H., Carlson, M.C., & Williamson, J.D. (2007). Associations of gait speed and other measures of physical function with cognition in a healthy cohort of elderly persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 62(11), 1244-51.
15. Hanley, J.A., McNeil, B.J. (1982). The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology, 143, 29-36.
16. Jorm, A.F., Dear, K.B., Burgess, N.M. (2005). Projections of future numbers of dementia cases in Australia with and without prevention. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 39(11-12), 959-63.
17. Kueper, J.K., Speechley, M., Lingum, N.R., & Montero Odasso, M. (2017). Motor function and incident dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing, 46(5), 729-738.
18. Rikli, R. E., & Jones, C. J. (2013). Senior fitness test manual. Human kinetics.
19. Smith, P. F. (2020). Why dizziness is likely to increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in elderly adults. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 133(1522), 112-127.
20. Sverdrup, K., Bergh, S., Selbæk, G., Røen., Kirkevold, Ø., Tangen, G.G. (2018). Mobility and cognition at admission to the nursing home - a cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), 30.
21. van der Fels, I. M., te Wierike, S. C., Hartman, E., Elferink Gemser, M. T., Smith, J., & Visscher, C. (2015). The relationship between motor skills and cognitive skills in 4–16 year old typically developing children: A systematic review. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 18(6), 697-703.
22. WHO. (2017). Dementia: number of people affected to triple in next 30 years.
23. Wimo A, Jonsson L, Winblad B. (2006). An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and direct costs of dementia in 2003. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 21(3), 175-81.